The pandemic has led to the greatest ever health crisis of mankind, destabilised GDPs and disrupted businesses, trades, and industries. Global financial markets and the stock exchange industry were also thrown in a state of flurry with the extreme volatility witnessed across global exchanges and stoppage in normal exchange operations due to lockdowns imposed across several nations.

As the world continues to battle the contagion, the pandemic has triggered irreversible changes and given rise to new trends in stock market operations and their dealings, which will go a long way in defining the future of global exchanges.

Modern stock trading refers to the practice of buying and selling stocks using electronic platforms and advanced technology. It has evolved significantly over the years, driven by advancements in computing power, connectivity, and the availability of real-time market data.

Here are some key aspects of modern stock trading:

Online Trading Platforms: Traditional stock trading that required phone calls or physical presence has been replaced by online trading platforms. These platforms provide users with access to multiple exchanges, real-time stock quotes, charts, research tools, and the ability to execute trades with a few clicks.

Mobile Trading: With the rise of smartphones, mobile trading apps have become popular. These apps allow investors to trade stocks, monitor their portfolios, and receive market news and alerts on the go.

High-Frequency Trading (HFT): HFT involves the use of powerful computers and algorithms to execute trades at extremely high speeds. HFT firms take advantage of small price discrepancies and trade in large volumes, often holding positions for very short periods.

Algorithmic Trading: Algorithmic trading uses computer programs to execute trades based on predefined instructions. These algorithms can analyze vast amounts of market data, identify patterns, and execute trades automatically, often without human intervention. Algorithmic trading is popular among institutional investors and hedge funds.

Electronic Communication Networks (ECNs): ECNs are electronic platforms that connect buyers and sellers directly, bypassing traditional exchanges. They enable traders to access better prices and faster execution times.

Robo-Advisors: Robo-advisors are automated investment platforms that use algorithms to provide personalized investment recommendations. They consider factors such as risk tolerance, investment goals, and time horizon to create diversified portfolios. Robo-advisors often use low-cost exchange-traded funds (ETFs) to implement investment strategies.

Social Trading: Social trading platforms allow users to observe and copy the trades of successful traders. It leverages the collective wisdom of the community and provides a platform for sharing trading ideas, strategies, and market insights.

Data Analytics and Machine Learning: Modern stock trading relies heavily on data analytics and machine learning techniques. Traders and investors use these tools to analyze vast amounts of historical and real-time market data, identify trends, predict price movements, and make more informed investment decisions.

Regulatory Changes: Regulatory bodies have adapted to the changing landscape of stock trading. They have implemented measures to ensure fairness, transparency, and stability in the markets. For example, circuit breakers are in place to halt trading during extreme volatility, and regulations have been introduced to address concerns related to HFT.

It's important to note that modern stock trading carries risks, and investors should educate themselves, understand the market dynamics, and consider their risk tolerance before engaging in trading activities.